Cave 32, Ellora

Mahavira, the historical founder of the Jain religion, is flanked by divinities of prosperity (Matanga, male, photo left) and generosity (Sidaika, female, photo right). This Jain triad emulates the Buddhist triads, since the two religions were competing at this time.

Cave 32 dates to the early 9th century. The similarity to Buddhist iconography is obvious, but Jain tirthankaras can be distinguished by the nudity of their figures.