Tianlongshan Grottoes, Shanxi
The Tianlongshan Grottoes are a series of 21 decorated Buddhist caves, dating from the Eastern Wei through the Tang dynasty. They are numbered consecutively from east to west. Many of the statues were removed and are now in foreign museums; see the UPenn Fine Arts Image Library Collection for examples.
The Manshan Pavilion, protecting Cave 9, is shown here. The pavilion was first built in the Ming dynasty, although the cave is Tang (following pages).